The History paper consists of all the aspects of Indian History, Pre-history, Ancient period, Medieval Indian history and Modern India including National Movement and post independent phase. It also consists of Historical Method, Research Methodology and Historiography. Since, the subject and the boundaries of Indian history are vast and comprehensive, it has been systematically analysed and synthesized into Ten Units. However, the concepts, the ideas and the terms given here would specify the extent the subject included though it is not mentioned in the units. It is to make the student realize the comprehension of the syllabus prepared.
Concepts, Ideas and Terms
Sabha and Samiti
Doctrine of Karma
Dandaniti / Arthasastra / Saptanga
Jangama / Dasa
Stupa / Chaitya/ Vihara
Madarasa / Maqtab
Nagara / Dravida / Vesara
Chauth / Sardeshmukhi
Bodhisattva / Tirthankara
Alvars / Nayanars
Jagir / Shariyat
Nadu / Ur
Hindu Code Bill
Doctrine of Lapse
Ethics and Morality in History Writing
Unit – I
Negotiating the Sources: Archaeological sources: Exploration, Excavation, Epigraphy and Numismatics. Dating of Archaeological Sites. Literary Sources: Indigenous Literature: Primary and Secondary: problem of dating Religious and Secular Literature, Myths, Legends, etc. Foreign Accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arabic.
Pastoralism and Food production: Neolithic and Chalcolithic Phase: Settlement, distribution, tools and patterns of exchange.
Indus/Harappa Civilization: Origin, extent, major sites, settlement pattern, craft specialization, religion, society and polity, Decline of Indus Civilization, Internal and external trade, First urbanization in India.
Vedic and later Vedic periods: Aryan debates, Political and Social Institutions, State Structure and Theories of State; Emergence of Varnas and Social Stratification, Religious and Philosophical Ideas. Introduction of Iron Technology, Megaliths of South India.
Expansion of State system: Mahajanapadas, Monarchical and Republican States, Economic and Social Developments and Emergence of Second Urbanization in 6th century BCE; Emergence of heterodox sects-Jainism, Buddhism and Ajivikas.
Unit – II
From State to Empire: Rise of Magadha, Greek invasion under Alexander and its effects, Mauryan expansion, Mauryan polity, society, economy, Asoka’s Dhamma and its Nature, Decline and Disintegration of the Mauryan Empire, Mauyan art and architecture, Asokan edicts: language and script.
Dissolution of Empire and Emergence of Regional Powers: Indo-Greeks, Sungas, Satavahanas, Kushanas and Saka-Ksatrapas, Sangam literature, polity and society in South India as reflected in Sangam literature. Trade and commerce from 2nd century BCE to 3rd century CE, Trade with the Roman World, Emergence of Mahayana Buddhism, Kharavela and Jainism, Post-Mauryan art and Architecture. Gandhara, Mathura and Amaravati schools.
Gupta Vakataka age: Polity and Society, Agrarian Economy, Land Grants, Land Revenue and Land Rights, Gupta Coins, Beginning of Temple Architecture, Emergence of Puranic Hinduism, Development of Sanskrit Language and Literature. Developments in Science Technology, Astronomy, Mathematics and Medicine.
Harsha and his Times: Administration and Religion.
Salankayanas and Visnukundins in Andhradesa.
Unit – III
Emergence of Regional Kingdoms: Kingdoms in Deccan: Gangas, Kadmabas, Western and Eastern Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Kalyani Chalukyas, Kakatiyas, Hoysalas and Yadavas.
Kingdoms in South India: Pallavas, Ceras, Colas and Pandyas,
Kingdoms in Eastern India: Palas and Senas of Bengal, Varmans of Kamarupa, Bhaumakaras and Somavamsis of Odisha.
Kingdoms in Western India: Maitrakas of Vallabhi and Chalukyas of Gujarat.
Kingdoms in North India: Gurjara-Pratiharas, Kalacuri-Chedis, Gahadavalas and Paramaras.
Characteristics of Early Medieval India: Administration and Political Structure Legitimation of Kingship.
Agrarian economy; land grants, changing production relations; graded land rights and peasantry, water resources, taxation system, coins and currency system;
Trade and urbanization: patterns of trade, and urban settlements, ports and trade routes, merchandise and exchange, trade guilds; trade and colonization in southeast Asia.
Growth of Brahminical religions: Vaisnavism and Saivism; Temples; Patronage and Regional Ramification; Temple Architecture and Regional Styles. Dana, Tirtha and Bhakti, Tamil Bhakti movement - Shankara, Madhava and Ramanujacharya.
Society: Varna, Jati and Proliferation of Castes, Position of women; Gender, marriage and property relations; Women in public life. Tribes as peasants and their place in Varna order. Untouchability.
Education and Educational Institutions: Agraharas, Mathas and Mahaviharas as Centres of Education. Growth of Regional Languages.
Debates of state formation in early medieval India: A) Feudal model; B) Segmentary model; C) Integrative model
Arab contracts: Suleiman Ghaznavid conquests. Alberuni’s Accounts.
Unit – IV
Source of Medieval Indian History: Archaeological, Epigraphic and Numismatic sources, Material evidences and Monuments; Chronicles; Literary sources – Persian, Sanskrit and Regional languages; Daftar Khannas: Firmans, Bahis / Pothis / Akhbarat; Foreign Travellers’ Accounts – Persian and Arabic..
Political Developments – The Delhi Sultanate – the Ghorids, the Turks, the Khaljis, the Tughlaqs, theSayyids and the Lodis. Decline of Delhi Sultanate..
Foundation of the Mughal Empire – Babur, Humayun and the Suris ; Expansion and Consolidation from Akbar to Aurangzeb. Decline of the Mughal Empire..
Later Mughals and Disintegration of the Mughal Empire..
The Vijayanagara and the Bahmanis - Deccan Sultanate; Bijapur, Golkonda, Bidar, Berar and Ahmadnagar – Rise, Expansion and Disintegration; Eastern Gangas and Suryavamshi Gajapatis..
Rise of the Marathas & the foundation of Swaraj by Shivaji ; its expansion under the Peshwas ; Mughal – Maratha relations, Maratha Confederacy, Causes of Decline.
Unit – V
Administration & Economy: Administration under the Sultanate, Nature of State – Theocratic and Theocentric, Central, Provincial and Local Administration, Law of succession..
Sher Shah’s Administrative Reforms ; Mughal Administration – Central, Provincial and Local : Mansabdari and Jagirdari Systems..
Administrative System in the Deccan – The Vijayanagara State & Polity, Bahamani Administrative System; Maratha Administration – Asta Pradhan..
Frontier Policies under Delhi Sultanate and Mughals..
Inter-State Relations during the Sultanate and the Mughals..
Agricultural Production and Irrigation System, Village Economy, Peasantry, Grants and Agricultural Loans, Urbanization and Demographic Structure..